American universities are accepting more minorities than ever. Graduating them is
Barry Mills, the president of Bowdoin College, was justifiably proud of Bowdoin's
efforts to recruit minority students. Since 2003 the small, elite liberal-arts school
in Brunswick, Maine, has boosted the proportion of so-called underrepresented minority
students (blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans, about 30 percent of the U.S.
population) in entering freshman classes from 8 percent to 13 percent. "It is our
responsibility, given our place in the world, to reach out and attract students
to come to our kinds of places," he told a NEWSWEEK reporter. But Bowdoin has not
done quite as well when it comes to actually graduating minorities. While nine out
of 10 white students routinely get their diplomas within six years, only seven out
of 10 black students made it to graduation day in several recent classes.
The picture of diversity—black, white, and brown students cavorting or studying
together out on the quad—is a stock shot in college catalogs. The picture on graduation
day is a good deal more monochromatic. "If you look at who enters college, it now
looks like America," says Hilary Pennington, director of postsecondary programs
for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which has closely studied enrollment patterns
in higher education. "But if you look at who walks across the stage for a diploma,
it's still largely the white, upper-income population."
The United States once had the highest graduation rate of any nation. Now it stands
10th. For the first time in American history, there is the risk that the rising
generation will be less well educated than the previous one. The graduation rate
among 25- to 34-year-olds is no better than the rate for the 55- to 64-year-olds
who were going to college more than 30 years ago. Studies show that more and more
poor and nonwhite students aspire to graduate from -college—but their graduation
rates fall far short of their dreams. The graduation rates for blacks, Latinos,
and Native Americans lag far be-hind the graduation rates for whites and Asians.
As the minority population grows in the United States, low college--graduation rates
become a threat to national -prosperity.
The problem is pronounced at public universities. In 2007 (the last year for which
Education Trust, a nonprofit advocacy group, has comparative statistics) the University
of Wisconsin–-Madison—one of the top five or so "public Ivies"—graduated 81 percent
of its white students within six years, but only 56 percent of its blacks. At less-selective
state schools, the numbers get worse. During the same time frame, the University
of Northern Iowa graduated 67 percent of its white students, but only 39 percent
of its blacks. Community colleges have low graduation rates generally—but rock-bottom
rates for minorities. A recent review of California community colleges found that
while a third of the Asian students picked up their degrees, only 15 percent of
African-Americans did so as well.
Private colleges and universities generally do better, partly because they offer
smaller classes and more personal attention. But when it comes to a significant
graduation gap, Bowdoin has company. Nearby Colby College logged an 18-point difference
between white and black graduates in 2007 and 25 points in 2006. Middlebury College
in Vermont, another topnotch school, had a 19-point gap in 2007 and a 22-point gap
in 2006. The most selective private schools—-Harvard, Yale, and -Princeton—show
almost no gap between black and white graduation rates. But that may have more to
do with their ability to cherry-pick the best students. According to data gathered
by Harvard Law School professor Lani Guinier, the most selective schools are more
likely to choose blacks who have at least one immigrant parent from Africa or the
Caribbean than black students who are descendants of American slaves. According
to Guinier's data, the latter perform less well academically.
"Higher education has been able to duck this issue for years, particularly the
more selective schools, by saying the onus is on the individual student," says Pennington
of the Gates Foundation. "If they fail, it's their fault." Some critics blame affirmative
action—students admitted with lower test scores and grades from shaky high schools
often struggle at elite schools. But a bigger problem may be that poor high schools
often send their students to colleges for which they are, in educators' jargon,
"undermatched": they could get into more elite, richer schools, but instead go to
community colleges and low-rated state schools that lack the resources to help them.
Some schools out for profit cynically jack up tuitions and count on student loans
and federal aid to foot the bill—knowing full well that the students won't make
it. "Colleges know that a lot of kids they take will end up in remedial classes,
for which they'll get no college credit and then they'll flunk out," says Amy
Wilkins of the Education Trust. "The school gets to keep the money, but the kid
leaves with loads of debt and no degree and no ability to get a better job. Colleges
are not holding up their end."
A college education is getting ever more expensive. Since 1982 tuitions have been
rising at roughly twice the rate of inflation. University administrators insist
that most of those hikes are matched by increased scholarship grants or loans, but
the recession has slashed private endowments and cut into state spending on high-er
education. In 2008 the net cost of attending a four-year public -university—after
financial aid—equaled 28 percent of median family income, while a four-year private
university cost 76 percent of median family income. More and more scholarships are
based on merit, not need. Poorer students are not always the best-informed consumers.
Often they wind up deeply in debt or simply unable to pay after a year or two and
must drop out.
There once was a time when universities took a perverse pride in their attrition
rates. Professors would begin the year by saying, "Look to the right and look to
the left. One of you is not going to be here by the end of the year." But such a
Darwinian spirit is beginning to give way as at least a few colleges face up to
the graduation gap. At the University of Wisconsin–Madison, the gap has been roughly
halved over the last three years. The university has poured resources into peer
counseling to help students from inner-city schools adjust to the rigor and faster
pace of a university classroom—and also to help minority students overcome the stereotype
that they are less qualified. Wisconsin has a "laserlike focus" on building up student
skills in the first three months, according to vice provost Damon Williams.
State and federal governments could sharpen that focus everywhere by broadly publishing
minority graduation rates. (For now students and counselors must find their way
to the Web site of the Education Trust, which compares data obtained from schools by the federal government.) For years
private colleges such as Princeton and MIT have had success bringing minorities
onto campus in the summer before freshman year to give them a head start on college-level
courses. The newer trend is to start recruiting poor and nonwhite students as early
as the seventh grade, using innovative tools like hip-hop competitions to identify
kids with sophisticated verbal finesse. Such programs can be expensive, of course,
but cheap compared with the millions already invested in scholarships and grants
for kids who have little chance to graduate without special support.
With effort and money, the graduation gap can be closed. Washington and Lee is a
small, selective school with a preppy feel in Lexington, Va. Its student body
is less than 5 percent black and less than 2 percent Latino. While the school usually
graduated about 90 percent of its whites, the graduation rate of its blacks and
Latinos had dipped to 63 percent by 2007. "We went through a dramatic shift," says
Dawn Watkins, the vice president for student affairs. The school aggressively pushed
mentoring of minorities by other students and "partnering" with parents at a special
pre-enrollment session. The school had its first-ever black homecoming. Last spring
the school graduated the same proportion of minorities as it did whites. If the
United States wants to keep up in the global economic race, it will have to pay
systematic attention to graduating minorities, not just enrolling them.